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As of 2013, about 3,106 living and fossil termite species have been recognised, classified in 12 households. The infraorder Isoptera is split into the following clade and household groups, showing the subfamilies in their respective classification:26

 

 

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Termites are found on all continents except Antarctica. The diversity of termite species is low in North America and Europe (10 species known in Europe and 50 in North America), but is high in South America, where over 400 species have been known.34 Of the 3,000 termite species currently classified, 1,000 are found in Africa, where mounds are really abundant in certain regions.

Within China, termite species are restricted to moderate tropical and subtropical habitats south of the Yangtze River.34 In Australia, all ecological groups of termites (dampwood, drywood, subterranean) are endemic to the country, with over 360 categorized species.34.

 

 

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Due to their soft cuticles, termites do not inhabit cool or cold habitats.36 There are three ecological forms of termites: dampwood, drywood and subterranean. Dampwood termites are found only in coniferous woods, and drywood termites are found in hardwood forests; subterranean termites reside in widely diverse regions.34 One species in the drywood category is the West Indian drywood termite (Cryptotermes brevis), which can be an invasive species in Australia.37.

Termites are usually small, measuring between 4 to 15 millimetres (0.16 to 0.59 in) in length.34 The biggest of all extant termites would be the queens of the species Macrotermes bellicosus, measuring up to over 10 centimetres (4 in) in length.38 Another giant termite, the extinct Gyatermes styriensis, thrived in Austria during the Miocene and had a wingspan of 76 millimetres (3.0 in) and a body length of 25 millimetres (0.98 in).39note 1.

 

 

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Most worker and soldier termites are blind because they do not have a pair of eyes. However, some species, such as Hodotermes mossambicus, haveCompound eyes that they utilize for orientation and also to distinguish sunlight from moonlight.40 The alates (winged males and females) have eyes along with lateral ocelli.

Termite antennae have a number of functions such as the sensing of touch, taste, odours (including pheromones), heat and vibration. The three primary segments of a termite antenna include a scape, a pedicel (typically shorter than the scape), and the flagellum (all segments beyond the scape and pedicel). The mouth parts contain a maxillae, a labium, and a pair of mandibles.

 

 

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Consistent with all insects, the anatomy of the termite thorax consists of 3 segments: the prothorax, the mesothorax and the metathorax. Each segment contains a set of legs. On alates, the wings are located at the mesothorax and metathorax. Even the mesothorax and metathorax have well-developed exoskeletal plates; the prothorax has smaller plates. .

Termites have a ten-segmented abdomen with 2 plates, the tergites and the sternites. The tenth abdominal segment has a set of short cerci.45 You can find ten tergites, of which nine are wide and have a peek at this website one is elongated. The reproductive organs are much like those in cockroaches but are somewhat more simplified. By way of example, the intromittent organ is not present in male alates, and the sperm is immotile or aflagellate.

Unlike in other termites, Mastotermitidae females have an ovipositor, a characteristic strikingly similar to this in female cockroaches.48.

 

 

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The non-reproductive castes of thieves are wingless and rely solely on their six legs for locomotion. The alates fly only to get a brief amount of time, so they also rely on their own legs. The appearance of the legs is comparable in each and every caste, but the soldiers have bigger and heavier legs.

The number of tibial spurs on an individual's leg varies. Some species of termite have an arolium, located between the claws, which can be present in species which scale on smooth surfaces but is absent in most termites.49.

Unlike in ants, the hind-wings and fore-wings are of equivalent length.2 Most of the time, the alates are poor go to the website stocks; their technique is to launch themselves in the atmosphere and fly in a random direction. Studies indicate that in comparison to larger termites, smaller termites cannot fly long distances. When a termite this contact form is in flight, its wings remain in a ideal angle, and when the termite is at rest, its wings remain parallel to your own body.51.

Caste method of termites A King B Queen C Secondary queen D Tertiary queen E Infection F Worker

 

 

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Worker termites undertake the maximum labor within the colony, being responsible for foraging, food storage, and brood and nest maintenance.53 Employees are tasked with the digestion of cellulose in food and are thus the most likely caste to be found in infested wood. The process of worker termites feeding different nestmates is popularly known as trophallaxis.

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